2_Ethical guidelines

(*) When conducting classroom inquiries, practitioner-researchers need to manage the dual role of instructor and researcher in order to protect participants from possible harmful effects.

Data collection: The data must have been collected under consideration of the following guidelines:

Eliminating undue influences: Recruitment of students is ideally carried out by a third party who is not associated with the course to eliminate peer pressure and allow students to participate or decline with anonymity. This way, the influence of power relationships on the voluntariness of consent can be limited and the decision to participate may remain independent of a potentially perceived incentive from participation.

Consent: Students and other participants in your inquiry have the right to refues or give consent to participation. In order to give informed consent, they must be adequately informed about the nature, risk, purpose, privacy, consequences of the study.

Privacy: Participants should have the right to expect that information about their personal behavior in the study be private. Data can be anonymous where it should not be possible to connect a specific person to the data, or confidential, where at last one person can connect a specific person to their data, but this data is kept private.

Protection from harm: Researchers are obliged to protect participants from physical, emotional or social harm.


Handling and storing data:  The data used in your research must have been handled and stored under consideration of the following ethical guidelines:

  • assign pseudonyms to students participating in a study,
  • when conducting a survey during class, have all students hand in the document (in an envelope, folded, even if it is blank)
  • store data in a secure location (e.g., password-protected computer, locked file cabinet)
  • aggregate or combine the data (useful in a large-scale survey), and/or
  • destroy data upon completion of the study.


Publication:  All authors must declare they have read and agreed to the content of the submitted manuscript. Authors’ work must be their own except where explicitly stated otherwise in the text.


(*) These guidelines are based on: